• <th id="rdu4x"></th>
    <span id="rdu4x"></span>

      <button id="rdu4x"></button>
      <rp id="rdu4x"></rp>

      > „ > WԺ„ > 20196Ϻ߿ӢZԇ}cu\

      20196Ϻ߿ӢZԇ}cu\

      lrg2019-06-12 ߣZ ԴڣZWվ
        

      I. listening Comprehension

      Section A

      Directions: In Section A, you will hear ten short conversations between two speakers.

      At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. The

       conversations and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a conve-

      rsation and a question about it, read the four possible answers on your paper and

      decide which one is the best answer to the question you have heard.

       

       

       

      1.­­

      M: Is there a new bookstore on Fuzhou Road?

      W: Yes, its got very good novels of the 20th century.

      Q: What are the speakers mainly talking about

       

      2.

      W: Mike, are you OK?

      M: I injured my back yesterday just by sneezing. My doctor said I need surgery.

      Q: What can be learnt about the man?

       

      3.

      M: Which team are you going to support?

      W: You are not going to talk about football again, are you? Thats it.

      Q: How does the woman feel about discussing football?

       

      4.

      M: Mary is not in the company. Has she returned from Xian yet?

      W: Yes, but before she went to Chengdu yesterday, she had been home for only

      one day.

      Q: Where is Mary now

       

      5.

      M: What? Steven is drinking orange juice.

      W: You cant believe it. Now he is careful about what he eats and takes regular

      exercise.

      Q: What does the woman imply about Steven?

       

      6.

      M: Ive moved the flower into the garden and water it every day. How come it

      is still not doing well?

      W: Well, why not add some fertilizer. Maybe that will help.

      Q: According to the woman, what may the flower need?

       

      7.

      M: Wow, you won the first prize in the writing contest. You havent taken any

      courses on reading and writing.

      W: But I have been keeping a diary since childhood.

      Q: According to the woman, what helped her win the contest?

       

      8.

      M: You like tennis so much. Why not take some lessons? They start next week.

      W: How am I going to fit that into my crowed schedule?

      Q: What does the woman mean?

       

      9.

      W: Walk to the park? You must be kidding. It takes only five minutes to drive

      there.

      M: If I had remembered to charge my car.

      Q: What can be learnt about the man?

       

      10.

      W: Youve been dealing with that budget report for nearly an hour. Anything

      wrong?

      M: I keep adding and reading the numbers, but they just dont balance.

      Q: What is the man doing?

       

       

      ̌Ԓcu

       

      Ķ̌Ԓyȷ]ƫy}ĿͬWֻҪպö̌Ԓ}ԭtڼӾ

      һ ֔

       

      ԭtһPI~

      οԇĵ12810}ҿԸPI~bookstoresurgerycrowed schedule

      budget reportadding and readingҵʾ

       

      ԭtעfԒZ

      3Thats it!wFŮʿ͟Z⡣

       

      ԭtպáh̖

      һ㮔 why not_𰸵Ę־ˣ籾ԇ}6why not add

      some fertilizerٽYPI~fertilizerД𰸡

       

      ԭtģƔ֮

      еĕrvԒfĺֱףҪƔ֮ʲô@NƔ@ʾ

      4}ȥɶ֮ǰֻڼҴһ족Ɣ֮Mary˿̿

      лڳɶ}ҲԵƣ͹˾ųҲԎ}

       

      ԭt壺̓MZ

      @c׺ÿ궼漰9}If I had remembered to charge my carʹõ

      ̓MZ⣬ӛó늵Ԓõ̓MZ⣬ôŒ܇]г늣

      _܇^ȥҪС

       

      ͬWƽr ĕrҪעYϼɣһ°빦

       

      Section B

      Directions: In Section B, you will hear two passages and one longer conversation.

       After each passage or conversation you will be asked several questions, the pass-

      ages and the conversation will be read twice, but questions will be spoken only

      once. When you hear a question, read the four possible answers on your paper

      and decide which one is the best answer to the question you have heard.

       

      Questions 11 through 13 are based on the following talk.

       

          Its common for you, nonfiction writers, to go forth into an area you know

      little about. You may worry that you're not qualified to bring the story back. I

      feel that anxiety every time I start a new project. I felt it when I went to Bra-

      denton to write my baseball book spring training. Although I've been a baseb-

      all fan all my life, I have never done any sports reporting, never interviewed

      a professional athlete. Any of the men I approached with a notebook could

      have asked, What else have you written about baseball? But nobody did.

      They didnt ask because I was sincere. It was obvious to those men that I

      really wanted to know how they did their work. Remember this when you

      enter a new area and need a shot of confidence. What matters is how you

      do it. Also remember that your assignment may not be as narrow as you

      think. Often it will turn out to touch some unexpected corner of your expe-

      rience or your education, enabling you to broaden the story with strength

      of your own. Every such reduction of the unfamiliar will reduce your fear.

       

      Questions:

      11. According to the speaker, when may nonfiction writers feel worried?

      12. Why did nobody in Bradenton care about what the speaker had writt-

      en before?

      13. According to the speaker, how does nonfiction writers experience

      or education benefit them?

       

       

      cu

       

       ĵһƪxӛģߵҕǽB˷СfҵĽv͸򡣱}

      y^ͣ˼ 棨rgԭͷ͌µ⡣ 冖}

      Ɇ~ҰסPI~a new projectsincere͡strength of your

      ownϾx_ˡ

      14. 𰸅ԭij̎Its common for you, nonfiction writers, to go f-

      orth into an area you know little about. You may worry that you're not q-

      ualified to bring the story back. I feel that anxiety every time I start a new

      project.

      15. 𰸅ԭij̎They didnt ask because I was sincere.

      16.𰸅ԭij̎Often it will turn out to touch some unexpected

      corner of your experience or your education, enabling you to broaden

      the story with strength of your own.

       

       

       

      Questions 14 through 16 are based on the following talk.

       

      The accepted definition of creativity is production of something original

      and useful, and it is commonly thought that creativity occurs on the right

      side of the brain, and the arts play an important role in enhancing it. But

       according to a new research, creativity isnt about freedom from conc-

      rete facts.

      Rather, fact-finding is vital in the creative process. It's the result of both

      sides of your brain working together. To understand this, we need to ta-

      ke a look at what leads to creativity. When you try to solve a problem, y-

      ou begin by concentrating on obvious facts and familiar solutions to see

       if the answer lies there. This is done mostly by the left side. However, if

      the answer doesn't come, the right and left sides of the brain activate

      together. The right side scans remote memories that could be vaguely

      relevant.

      A wide range of distant information that is normally ignored becomes a-

      vailable to the left side. Then the left side catches whatever connection

      it may have with the problem, and quickly locks in on it before it escapes.

      With extremely focused attention, the brain quickly pulls together these

      pieces of thought and combines them into a new single idea, as the brain

      recognizes the originality of what it has come up with, a sense of pleasure

      will arise.

       

      Questions:

      14. What do people commonly think of creativity?

      15. According to the passage, how does the left side of the brain contribute

      to creative process?

      16. What is the passage mainly about?

       

      cu

       

      ƪ xČJ֪^鳣ҊhͬWƽrCJ֪

      £؄eP@ɂоµо^cȡ Ƕȁ

      fƪ~Rx^y؄e ͬWƽrҪߌ^

      yˮƽ~İlжȣ ˮƽ

      14}}^Aˮƽ}_ƪThe accepted definition of

      creativity isoľҲDZ^ ăݣvһ˂J

      1˼Sԭ˼S2lX3ˇgԼӏ˼

      14}Ҫx@x헡

      15}} }錦ijݵ⡣}Ҫ 

      X˼SáWhen you try to solve a problem, you begin

      by concentrating on obvious facts and familiar solutions to see if the

      answer lies there. This is done mostly by the left side.@vX

      ҂ṩfacts and familiar solutionsĹܣ⡰A wide range of

      distant information that is normally ignored becomes available to the

       left side.ἰXṩЩױ҂ԻzϢ˵15}

      Ĵ𰸑iXá

      16}} ּ}錦ƪ´͸

      Ҫv˄˼Sı|Լڮa˼S^УXĹ

      ܺԡ

       

       

       

      Questions 17 through 20 are based on the following conversation.

       

      W: Hello, Peter. I heard you worked in a remote village last month.

      M: Yes, as a volunteer teaching in a primary school in southeastern China.

      W: A good choice for the summer vacation.

      M: For me, it is not only a choice, but a responsibility.

      W: Youre right. What can a volunteer generally do?

      M: Many things, like creating a change in the surroundings, providing

      shelter and food to the needy ones.

      W: So you mean volunteering is not just donating cash or things

      M: RightWe prefer to call that charity.

      W: How did you come up with the idea of volunteering?

      M: It was my father. He used to supervise a volunteer program in a

      non-profit art gallery.

      W: Was it a full-time job for him?

      M: No, in fact, a part time job. He went to the gallery nearly every

      weekend.

      W: Wow, this requires great passion.

      M: Sure. The best way to volunteer is to get involved in activities we

      are passionate about.

      W: Have you had any difficulties as a volunteer?

      M: Definitely! Lack of respect, acknowledgement, and lack of funds

      now and then.

      W: Oh, my! Many obstacles!

      M: So the most important spirit is perseverance.

      W: Id like to join you someday.

      M: Any time.

       

      Questions

      17. What are the two speakers mainly talking about?

      18. What volunteer service did the mans father do?

      19. What does the man think is the best way to volunteer?

      20. According to the man, which of the following is the most important

      for a volunteer?

       

       

      cu

       LԒlԒ}҂Ϥģ~RZymУƽr

      ĸXơ ҂һLԒĽɺͺuһ@ε

      ȣԒ}־Ը߻ӼPݡһLԒ·һһ

      Ԓһfă䌍Ǵ𰸳̎cͬWҪмe

      }֮ǰ҂߀иĵ}ĿxAпܳ}Ƀ

      ݡһLԒ}·ּ}^Œ}ǑBД}Լ

      ǵP^c}˴  rһҪM ^cPI~

      ҂\Ѓɴ C˽hұMһ ƒݣ

      ɵһ}Ŀּ}ڶ ĕrԙzּ}Լ

      ďƪļ}the mans father ^ʲôӵ

      volunteer serviceλԭHe used to supervise a volunteer

      program in a non-profit art gallery. the best

      way to volunteer is to get involved in activities we are passi-

      onate about. the most important spirit is perseverance.

       @}𰸶dz@ּ}ҲԶˣvolunteer experience

       

      II. Grammar and Vocabulary

      Section A

      Directions: After reading the passage below, fill in the blanks to

      make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the

      blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form

      of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best

      fits each blank.

      Wؑң

       

      In what is one of the most breath-taking sights of nature, mil-

      lions of Oliver Ridley baby turtles broke out of their eggshells

      under the sand at one of their mass nesting ground in Coastal

      Orissa, India. After emerging from the nests in the Rushikylya

      river mouth, in the southern district of Ganjam, some 174 kil-

      ometers form Bhubanesshwar, the hatchings start their journey

      towards the Bay of Bengal.

      Orissa is the home three mass nesting sites of the endangered

      Oliver turtles, namely Nasi island of Gahirmatha beach in Ken-

      drapada district, Devi river mouth in Puri district and Rushikulya

      river mouth.

      Gahirmatha is considered one of the worlds largest nesting sites

       which around 70 to 80 million turtles lay at least 120-150 eggs in

      one go. Hatchings emerge from eggs after about 40 to 60 days. It

       is believed that the Oliver turtles return to the same beach to nest

      where they were themselves hatched.

      At least 52 villagers and forest guards protect the baby turtles. In

      the recent times, sea erosion has led to many turtles nest being

      damaged. Predators like dogs, jackals and birds take their toll on t

      he nesting turtles. Mechanized trawlers along the coast also play a

      role in the massacre of thousands of these omnivorous sea turtles.

      Like tigers and elephants, the Oliver Ridley turtle is protected under

      schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. They should be pro-

      tected at any cost. Operation Mohanty has been coordinating the

      operation for the conservation of these turtles.

              Each year, from December to April, Gahirmatha plays host to hundreds

      and thousands of females Olive Ridley turtles. These turtles lay their eggs

      on the same beach where they were born. Turtles always return to the same

      nesting site year after year, even if they migrate thousands of kilometers.

      This particular phenomenon has baffled scientists for years now and no one

       has any clue as to why they do so.

       

      ؑ𰸣ǹٷwhat, as soon as, that, where, threatened, are

      deposited, themselves; being damaged, by, have reduced. xԓṩĴ𰸣

       

       

       

      cu

       

      In what is one of the most breath-taking sights of nature, millions of

      Oliver Ridley baby turtles broke out of their eggshells under the sand

      at one of their mass nesting ground in Coastal Orissa, India. After

      emerging from the nests in the Rushikylya river mouth, in the southern

       district of Ganjam, some 174 kilometers form Bhubanesshwar, the

       hatchings start their journey towards the Bay of Bengal.

               @ˇ@^ֹȻ^У԰fӋĊWӡ

      غW_һ؏ɳµĵ@˳ĸZķϲ؅^

      RushikilyyaӿڣxBhubanesshwars174ijѨг@Щ

      _ʼϼMl

             Orissa is the home three mass nesting sites of the endangered

       Oliver turtles, namely Nasi island of Gahirmatha beach in Kendrapada

      district, Devi river mouth in Puri district and Rushikulya river mouth.

      W_uǞlR^ĊWҎģأքeǿϵ_^

      wR{u^¾Sӿںʲӿڡ

          Gahirmatha is considered one of the worlds largest nesting sites

      which around 70 to 80 million turtles lay at least 120-150 eggs in one

      go. Hatchings emerge from eggs after about 40 to 60 days. It is belie-

      ved that the Oliver turtles return to the same beach to nest where they

       were themselves hatched.

          wRJ֮һsǧfǧfֻһ

      ٮa120150s4060ѷ˂JW

      صԼĺ

      At least 52 villagers and forest guards protect the baby turtles. In

       the recent times, sea erosion has led to many turtles nest being

      damaged. Predators like dogs, jackals and birds take their toll on

      the nesting turtles. Mechanized trawlers along the coast also play

       a role in the massacre of thousands of these omnivorous sea turtles.

          52oֆToСgSຣijѨ⵽Ɖġ

      񹷡B@ӵʳߕĺrغęCеϾWOҲ

      ǧֻsʳҲƲá

      Like tigers and elephants, the Oliver Ridley turtle is protected under

       schedule 1 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. They should be pro-

      tected at any cost. Operation Mohanty has been coordinating the

      operation for the conservation of these turtles.

      cϻʹһӣWҲܵ1972꡶Ұﱣo

      1ıoԓϧκδrõoĪhЄһֱڅf{o@

      ЩЄӡ

                Each year, from December to April, Gahirmatha plays host to hun-

      dreds and thousands of females Olive Ridley turtles. These turtles lay

      their eggs on the same beach where they were born. Turtles always return

       to the same nesting site year after year, even if they migrate thousands

       of kilometers. This particular phenomenon has baffled scientists for years

       now and no one has any clue as to why they do so.

                ÿ꣬12µ4£wR_ҪӴfӋĴԊW

      @ЩͬһϮaѡһػصͬһ

      cʹw˔ǧ@NĬFһֱ_ƌWң]

      ֪ʲô@

       

       

      mȻ]ԇͨ^ĿṩĴ𰸣҂܉lFθ߿}

      漰ĸ߿Zc

       

      1.    ~ԏľ䣨what~ԏľB~

      2.    rgZľB~as soon as

      3.    {䣨it +be+{+that+ɣ

      4.    Zľ䣨where

      5.    ^Zthreatened, being damaged

      6.    ~by

      7.    rBͱZBhave reduced, are deposited

      8.    ~themselves

       

          ֔Y֪RcoRϜʂһ݆ĸ߿W

          䌍W^߿Zn̵ČWy@Щ֪Rc҂n϶Ԕ

      v^{^ġ

          ƪnjȻʷ}ģڰ߿xĵһ҂^

      һƪdzƵ¡ȻʷŒWf^yv

      ڌWXγɏҹQСJ@ҲǴXñZƪ}^y

      ԭڡص߿Z֪Rcϣ䌍ƪǺ`ؿˌW

      ӢZZľCպ͑ó̶ȡ

          ˣСoλ俼߿ČWһdz\Ľhİ

      }²ҪţһҪoط}Ŀ뿼Ă֪Rcٸǰ

      ĺ¾߉݋PϵMбeСҰ@ӵķ}ô

      ZƪՌfСcase

       

       

      Section B

      Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the

      box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word m-

      ore than you need.

      Wؑ棩       

       

       

      A. comprehensively B. naturally C. focus      D. moderate     E. distraction 

       F. counting      G. worsening              H. performing      I. modified       

        J. determined    K. environmental

      Myopia, or short-sightedness, is a condition in which distant objects

       appear blurred, but closer objects can usually be seen in sharp focus.

      Its biological basis is an eye that, during childhood, has grown too long

      for its optical power. The focal plane for images of distant objects ends

      up in front of the retina, causing out-of-focus perception.

      Fortunately, mild to moderate levels of myopia can be readily modified

      with spectacles, contact lenses or laser surgery, which flattens the front

       of the eye.

      But prevention is better than correcting the optical defocus. Fortunately,

       spending more time outdoors may decrease children's chances of deve-

      loping myopia.

             Finding the cause

             Myopia was once regarded as almost totally genetically determined. But its

      prevalence has increased spectacularly in urban mainland China, Hong Kong,

      Taiwan, Singapore, Japan and South Korea, where 80- 90% of those completing

      high school are now short-sighted. This is up from 20-30% only two generations

      ago.

             Since gene pools do not change that fast, these massive changes must be

      due to environmental change.

             In 2005, we comprehensively reviewed the research on myopia and found a

      correlation with education. (This was not a particularly novel insight; such a link

      was postulated as far back as Kepler in 1604.) We found locations with a high p-

      revalence of myopia were all top performers in surveys of international educati-

      onal outcomes.

             Fortunately, not all high performing locations, Australia among them, show-

      ed a high prevalence of myopia. This shows that high educational outcomes do

      not necessarily lead to myopia.

             We also hypothesised that all human population groups had a tendency to

      develop myopia under particular environmental conditions. Indeed, Australia has

       naturally low level of myopia with a lifestyle that emphasizes outdoor activities.

       Young children report spending two to three hours a day outside, not counting

      time outdoors at school. However, there are formidable barrier to achieving this b

      enchmark in locations where spending time outdoors is seen as a distraction from

      study.

             Policy responses must therefore also aim to slow the progression my myopia,

       the phenomenon in which mild to moderate myopia becomes more severe during

      childhood. There is currently controversy over whether time outdoors slows prog-

      ression, but strong seasonal effects on progression suggest that it may.

             School regimes which give a sufficient place to time outdoors may reduce both

      the onset and progression of myopia. These school-based interventions will need

      to be supplemented by clinical interventions, such as the use of atropine eye drops.

       

      ԭģWe can prevent an epidemic of short-sighted kids with more time outdoors
      rg2015.7.21

      ߣIan Morgan, Australian National University; Kathryn Rose, University of Tech-

      nology Sydney

       

       

      cu

       

      Step1: ȰѴx헵~Զע

      A.comprehensively  adv.    B.naturally  adv.     C.focus n./v.        D.moderate adj.

      E.distraction  n.     F. counting  n./v.     G.worsening v./adj.    H.performing  n/.v.

      I.modified  v./adj.           J.determined v./adj.   K.environmental  adj.

      Step 2:ͨxȫģ߅Ax߅Д~ԡ

      ͨxȫ҂lFҪPĽҕ vs.ӑӕrgAҕĬF

      {ġ҂ČW߀ǺNġ

      31.Cfocus.һ_TҊɽȫPI~myopiaorB~ጣʲô

      myopiashort-sightednessҕҕhxwģx

      wƜy-focus˳Ҋġc۽⣬߀С֮⡣

      32.Imodified. pȵжȵĽҕͨ^۾spectaclescontact lenses[

      Rlaser surgerygƜy{ƣ֮⡣modify޸ģ

      ġ

      33.Jdetermined. ҕһȱҕȫcgeneticallyzWPsince

       gene pools do not change that fastMһCҕJzģġ

      34.Kenvironmental. fЇꑣۣ_ȵ؅^ɸЌWI˽ҕ

      _80%-90%ǰɴ20%-30%Since gene pools do not change that fast

      ڻ׃]ô죬ô@׃ֻǁⲿġenvironmentalhģ܇ġ

      35.Acomprehensively. @պ@adv., ABwe reviewed the research

      @Ȼȱһʽĸ~ӵػȫľCϵĻlFҕͽPӑՓ

      h}

      36.Hperforming. @high-performingĵtop performers.

      we found locations with a high prevalence of myopia were all top performers

      in surveys of international educational outcomes.L䡣we found (that)

      locations were all top performers in survey. ҂lF(߶Ƚҕ)؅^ڇH

      ɹ{жDZFõġwith a high prevalence of myopiaZlocations,

      ӵĵ؅^

      Not all locations showed a high prevalence of myopia.и߿Ч؅^

      Ǹ߶Ƚҕ؅^do not necessarily lead to myopiaһC

      37.Bnaturally. Yģи߿Ч؅^Ǹ߶Ƚҕ؅^оصe˰

      ļgϷAustralia has low level of myopiaһӣlowǰ

      ȱһadv.ӵصͽҕȣֻʣnaturallyһ~ĺZwith a lifestyle

       that emphasizes outdoor activitiesӵʽҕȲߡ

      38.Fcounting. нСтһڑ2-3Сr߀όWrgđ

      ӡ

      39.Edistraction. нthere are formidable barrier to achieving this bench

      mark in locationsҪᵽĸ߿Ч؅^FLrgо޴ϵKʲô

      أlocations where spending time outdoors Mrg`W,distraction

       from studyɢWע

      40.Dmoderate. Ҳּڜpҕlչthe phenomenon in which mild

      to moderate myopia becomes more severe during childhood.ҕFڃͯp

      ȵжȽҕ׃øӇءڶmild to moderate levels of myopia.

       

      III. Reading Comprehension

      Section A

      Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked

      A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.

      Wؑ棩       

       

      Were told that writing is dying. Typing on keyboards and screens dominates

       written communication today. Even scribing a signature has become rarer due

      to the prevalence of chip-and-pin credit cards.

      In an age where our children swipe, pinch and tap on smart phones and tablets

      from birth, is the hand in handwriting about to be removed forever? And

       are there benefits to good old-fashioned pen and paper: artistic posterity cog-

      nitive benefits or something else?

      Pen decline

      Learning cursive, joined-up handwriting was once compulsory in schools. But now,

       not so much. Countries such as Finland have dropped joined up handwriting les-

      sons in schools in favor of typing courses and in the US, the requirement to learn

      cursive has been left out of core standards since 2013. A few US states still place

      value on formative cursive education, such as Arizona, but theyve not majority.

      Some experts point out that writing lessons can have indirect benefits. Anne Tr-

      ubek, author of The History and Uncertain Future of Handwriting, argues that such

      lessons can reinforce a skill called automaticity. Thats when youve perfected a

      task, and can do it almost without thinking, granting you extra mental bandwidth

      to think about or do other things while youre doing the task. In this sense, Trubek

       likens handwriting to driving.

      Once you have driven for a while, you dont consciously think Step on gas now

       or Turn the steering wheel a bit, she explains. You just do it.

                 Thats what we want children to acquire when leaning to write. You and I dont

       think now make a loop going up for the I or now look for the better.

      Trubek has written many essays and books on handwriting, and she doesnt believe it

      will die out for a very long time, if ever. But she believes students are learning aut-

      omaticity faster with keyboards than with handwriting. Students are learning how to t-

      ype without looking at the keys at earlier ages, and to type faster than they could write,

      granting them extra time to think about a word choice or sentence structure.

                  In a piece penned (if youll pardon the expression) for the New York Times last

      year, Trubek argued that due to the improved automaticity of keyboards, todays chil-

      dren may well become better communication in text as handwriting takes up less of their

      education. This is a view that has attracted both criticism and support.

      She explains that two of the most common arguments she hears from detractors re-

      garding the decline of handwriting is that not protecting it will result in a loss of

      history and a loss of personal touch.

      On the former she counters that 95% of handwritten manuscripts cant be read by

      the average person anyway-thats why we have paleographers, she explains,

       paleography being the study of ancient styles of writing- while the latter refers to

       the warm associations we give to handwritten personal notes, such as thank-you

       cards.

      what it signals is that someone took time; that is a more labor-intensive, and t

      herefore meaningful communication, says Trubek. I counter that there are lots

      of ways to show we care and take time to do so- send a batch of cookies, say, if

      your cursive isnt good

       

      BBCһƪ„ the uncertain future of handwriting.

       

       

      cu

       

       ԓƪhՓģ_^һΡWere told that writing is dying. Typing on keyboards and

      screens dominates written communication today. Even scribing a signature has become

       rarer due to the prevalence of chip-and-pin credit cards. ՓcȻҪͨ^

      TrubekһЩP^cչ_Փ̽ӑ˂ڡδֵ^cһv^

      ϺӢZԇ}ij}ͬWƽrҪעضx⿯Wվ„

      UչһЩ†~~MBӢZ˼SӢZZС

       

       

      Section B

      Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or

      unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the

       one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have read.

      Wؑ棩       

      A

       

                              The Work You Do, the Person You Are

      The pleasure of being necessary to my parents was profound. I was not like the

      children in folktales: burdensome mouths to feed.

       

      All I had to do for the two dollars was clean her house for a few hours after

       school. It was a beautiful house, too, with a plastic-covered sofa and chairs,

       wall-to-wall blue-and-white carpeting, a white enamel stove, a washing

      machine and a dryerthings that were common in her neighborhood,

      absent in mine. In the middle of the war, she had butter, sugar, steaks,

      and seam-up-the-back stockings.

      I knew how to scrub floors on my knees and how to wash clothes in our

      zinc tub, but I had never seen a hoover vacuum cleaner or an iron that

      wasnt heated by fire.

      Part of my pride in working for her was earning money I could squander:

       on movies, candy, paddle balls, jacks, ice-cream cones. But a larger part

       of my pride was based on the fact that I gave half my wages to my mother,

      which meant that some of my earnings were used for real thingsan

      insurance-policy payment or what was owed to the milkman or the iceman.

      The pleasure of being necessary to my parents was profound. I was not like

       the children in folktales: burdensome mouths to feed, nuisances to be

      corrected, problems so severe that they were abandoned to the forest.

      I had a status that doing routine chores in my house did not provideand

      it earned me a slow smile, an approving nod from an adult. Confirmations

      that I was adult like, not childlike.

      In those days, the forties, children were not just loved or liked; they were

      needed. They could earn money; they could care for children younger than

      themselves; they could work the farm, take care of the herd, run errands,

      and much more. I suspect that children arent needed in that way now.

      They are loved, doted on, protected, and helped. Fine, and yet . . .

      Little by little, I got better at cleaning her housegood enough to be

      given more to do, much more. I was ordered to carry bookcases upstairs

      and, once, to move a piano from one side of a room to the other. I fell

      carrying the bookcases. And after pushing the piano my arms and legs

      hurt so badly. I wanted to refuse, or at least to complain, but I was afraid

      she would fire me, and I would lose the freedom the dollar gave me, as

      well as the standing I had at homealthough both were slowly being

      eroded. She began to offer me her clothes, for a price. Impressed by

      these worn things, which looked simply gorgeous to a little girl who

       had only two dresses to wear to school, I bought a few. Until my mother

      asked me if I really wanted to work for castoffs. So I learned to say No,

       thank you to a faded sweater offered for a quarter of a weeks pay.

      Still, I had trouble summoning the courage to discuss or object to the

      increasing demands she made. And I knew that if I told my mother how

       unhappy I was she would tell me to quit. Then one day, alone in the

       kitchen with my father, I let drop a few whines about the job. I gave him

      details, examples of what troubled me, yet although he listened intently,

      I saw no sympathy in his eyes. No Oh, you poor little thing. Perhaps

       he understood that what I wanted was a solution to the job, not an escape

       from it. In any case, he put down his cup of coffee and said, Listen. You

       dont live there. You live here. With your people. Go to work. Get your

       money. And come on home.

      That was what he said. This was what I heard:

      1. Whatever the work is, do it wellnot for the boss but for yourself.

      2. You make the job; it doesnt make you.

      3. Your real life is with us, your family.

      4. You are not the work you do; you are the person you are.

      I have worked for all sorts of people since then, geniuses and morons,

      quick-witted and dull, bighearted and narrow. Ive had many kinds of

      jobs, but since that conversation with my father I have never considered

      the level of labor to be the measure of myself, and I have never placed

      the security of a job above the value of home. 

      Դ Toni Morrison2017529̖lڡ~s͡(The New

      Yorker)ϵһƪ¡

       

      cu

       

      ߿ĺܶxȡ⿯ԴƽrҪPע⿯x鿼

      ԇeۡ

      }^鳣ҊҪߌһЩԼԼĸܣ

      ZcҲǺyԌWԓ܉^x´⡣

      µһ֞룬Vxߣ˵õԪҪԼ

      ˼һЩ@֣҂܉˽⵽߼˼Ҿrđ

      µڶ֣v@헹ijڎoԺУIԼϲgĖ|

      Naã@øĸĿ϶߀ǂӂıҪͬFں

      ӂıۡ

      µ֣Sċ죬ɰloyĹ@

      ʹ_ʼЩġ]ﱧԹ߀LjԳֹ

      µIJ֣߽KڌH_飬Մڹy

      Hһ_ʹ˜\ԺĹahӰ푡

       

       

                                            B

       

      Geographers are interested in the spatial patterns observed on earth.

      Bridging the natural and social sciences, Geography is the interdisciplinary

      study of environments and how people interact with the environment. It

      is important to study geography because many of the world's problems

      require understanding the interdependence between human activities and

      the environment. Geography is therefore a beneficial major for students

      because its theories and methods provide them with analytical skills relevant

       to occupations focused on solving social and environmental problems.

      The Department of Geography offers eight majors that help students tailor

       their focus of study.

       

              The Geography - Globalization and Development major will provide students

      with a sophisticated understanding of contemporary global issues and a geographical

      framework for analyzing key issues involved in national and international development,

       especially as it relates to the global south. Reflecting the discipline of geography as a

       whole, this major emphasizes an integrated approach to studying the relationship of

      global change to individual and community well-being by combining the benefits of

      area studies with theoretical and topical investigations in the curriculum.


             Our department is committed to excellence in both teaching and advising. Several

      of our faculty members have received teaching awards, and we are known across campus

      for the quality of our advising. As a geography major, you will meet one-on-one with

      your faculty advisor every semester during advising week, and you are always welcome

      to talk with your advisor at any time throughout the semester whenever questions may

       arise. In addition to advising our students about their academic programs, we provide

      timely information about internships, nationally competitive awards and other opportunities

       as they arise. Many of our students complete internships and several of our students over

       the last few years have received nationally competitive awards.


             For more information about our program, please view this video, visit our website, or

      contact our Undergraduate Chair, whose information is listed above.


            With a liberal arts degree in Geography-Globalization and Development, students are

      prepared for employment in a variety of fields, including non-profit and government work,

      particularly in the areas of community and international development. This degree will also

      prepare students well to work in the private sector in an international context. Graduates

      from this program will also be well situated to continue on to graduate school or law school,

       with research and professional interest in academic fields, including, but not limited to, ge-

      ography, public affairs and policy, development studies, and community and regional planning.


             Browse through dozens of internship opportunities and full-time job postings for Ohio

      University students and alumni on Bobcat CareerLink. OHIO's key resource for researching

       jobs, employers, workshops, and professional development events.

       

      ā⿯WپWWַhtps://www.ohio.edu/majors/undergrad/programs.cfm?

      programID=14588

       

       

      cu

       

             µһνB˵WҪԣȻU˵팣IăݡWĵWԺoWṩ

      󌣘Iڶv@IČWBWCϷ܉ȫ„պ͵혋и

      ⡣؏{ԓWWԺĽ̌W͌ԃաԓWYһdzBW

      ֮⣬WṩeČCĶṩ˫@ȡϢθ֪W@W

      팣IBЇHҕҰČWWIԏ‡HµĺܶИIһṩ

      ҌCȫšYԴ

               BƪƪyȲҪ鼚}ҺܷϸhĿǰr--

      WxIh~

       

                                         C

       Ŀǰδҵɿ}Ŀ

      Section C

      Directions: Read the following passage. Fill in each blank with a proper sentence given in the box. Each

      sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.

      Wؑ棩       

       

      The psychology of being a sports fanx

      Our research has shown that the No. 1 reason people become fans is that its your

      connection to your first community, said Adam Earnhardt, chairman of the com-

      munications department at Youngstown State University and co-author of Sports

      Fans, Identity and Socialization: Exploring the Fandemonium.

      I dont care if a Seattle fan moves to China, he or she carries with them their love

       for the sports teams, he said. That identity is first and foremost.

      In that sense, your favorite team can serve the same purpose as church and family:

      Fostering a sense of belonging. And when a team begins to catch fire, as with, say,

      the Mariners in 95 or the Seahawks of recent vintage, well, its easy to get swept

      up in the wave.

      Euphoria is contagious, as is tragedy, said Long Island-based sports psycholo

      gist Richard Lustberg. Its very difficult in a relatively small town not to get

      caught up in the euphoria. My best guess is if youre not caught up in Seahawks

       mania, youre out of step. Its almost like theres peer pressure to be part of it.

      Theres a universal need to belong, added Christian End, associate professor

       of psychology at Xavier University and longtime researcher of fan behavior. Its

      almost to the point if youre not identifying with the team, people are thinking,

      Whats up with you? Youre violating the norm.

      Victories and losses, though not necessarily relevant to the far-reaching impact

      of fandom, can have profound immediate effect, not always positive. Studies have

       linked reckless driving, heart attacks and domestic violence to the outcome of

      sporting events.

      According to a 2013 study published in Psychological Science, fans were found

      to eat healthier when their team won. Two researchers at INSEAD Business School

      compared outcomes from two seasons worth of NFL games with food consumption

       in more than two dozen cities. They found that people in cities with a losing

      football team ate about 16 percent more saturated fat on Monday compared to

      their usual consumption. And people in winning cities ate about 9percent less

      saturated fats trends that held true even when non-football fans were included

      in the sample.

      Those results were replicated in a study of French sports fans, leading the researchers

       to hypothesize that people feel an identity threat when their favorite team loses and

       are more likely to use eating as a coping mechanism.

      When your team loses, its like you lose a part of yourself, because your identity

       is so merged with the identity of the team and the fan community, lead rese-

      archer Yann Cornil said by phone from Singapore. Sports in the U.S. makes such

      a difference in peoples lives, a loss can be distressing and result in binge eating.

      A famous study by Paul Bernhardt at Georgia State University in 1998 showed that

       male spectators of sporting events experience the same testosterone surges as the

       players themselves an increase of about 20 percent by fans of winning teams,

      and a similar decrease in losing fans.

      Scientists have also noted what are called mirror neurons in our brains, activ-

      ated not just by participation in sports, but by watching others participate. These

      findings help explain the profound sense of vicarious connection to athletes.(ԇ

      пфh

      Its phenomenal, said Simons. We have this ability to understand other

      people so remarkably that their victories literally become ours. Our testosterone

      literally responds to their victory. The more we follow a team, the deeper the bond

      becomes. Theyre us, and competing on a literal level as us a little extension of

       us.

      Professor Robert Cialdini at Arizona State University came up with the term BIRG 

      Basking In Reflected Glory to describe the intense pride fans feel when their

      teams succeed. It can be used as a verb, as in, Seahawks fans are currently

      BIRGing up a storm.

      The counterpoint, as coined by researchers C.R. Snyder, MaryAnne Lassergard

      and Carol E. Ford, is the concept of CORFing Cutting Off Reflected Failure.

      This refers to the inclination by fans to distance themselves from their team

      after a defeat. Weve all heard it in action: We won, but they lost.

      This leads into another concept, that of cognitive bias, also known as confirmation

      bias, which causes fans to help explain away defeats by blaming outside factors,

       such as referees. Im sure it would also help explain why Seahawks fans rallied

       around Richard Sherman after his postgame interview, rationalizing behavior

      that was widely criticized by many fans with no vested interest.

      It could also explain the notion of eustress, invented by endocrinologist Hans

       Selye to refer to a combination of euphoria and stress, such as that resulting from

      watching tense sporting events. Indeed, its much of the appeal.

      Դhttps://www.seattletimes.com/sports/the -psychology-of-being-a-sports-fan/

       

      cu

       

      @ƪxԡňDr󡷣ԓČLarry Stone2014215̖ǣ

      һwԵ@ƪWķһdzҊ^Wg

      ҂ƽrx^@ЩƫIIҲ҂c

      _^_TҊɽĸV҂һ۽zɞһķ۽zĵһԭc֮g

      Bӣ@ͺڽ̻Ǽͥڱ˴֮gdzĚwٸС

      hȥֵ_^ȸV҂Oȵd^ЂȾԵģe˶еOd^ĕr

      ڌwٸжͬӵĸͬܣwٸ˂С

      汻hȥĴƪͨ^eĸV҂@NձԼ҂

      ճӰ푣ϲgA˱ِԒԵø֮ݔĿܕ

      ʳ۵ݔˌڷ۽zӰǷdz޴ģԵIJGͪˮƽԼX\

      ʽҡ

      ½o҂2W BIRG  Basking In Reflected GloryԼCORFing

      Cutting Off Reflected FailureȻ҂ľܵϲӰ֮҂

      ăĕһЩұlCƣA˕ӵ_ģݔ˕ĵhc@“ϵ

      ˃ɂӌWgĸcognitive bias, also known as confirmation

      biasJ֪ƫҊҲݔԿϲgⲿԭдڣ߀һeustress

      eOeuphoria@ƪµһl~CKһˮͽeuphoriaԢOȵĿ옷

       

      IV. Summary Writing

      Directions: Read the following passage. Summarize the main idea and the main point(s) of the passage

      in no more than 60 words. Use your own words as far as possible.

      Wؑ棩      

       

      It's undeniable: Being among the first to try out a new piece of technology is cool.

      Theres the the thrill of doing what has never been done before the feeling that

      youre living in the future. And when youre the sole member of your social circle

      with the latest hot gadget, people stare in fascination. They ask you questions. They

       see you as the holder of powerful, secret knowledge for a little while, until the next

      big thing comes along. People tend to underestimate the costs of this temporary

      coolness, which they pay in more ways than one. Dont fall into the early adopter

      trap. Dont join the first wave of consumers who invest in the latest media-hyped

       hardware; instead, wait and see.

       

      First, the earliest versions of devices are not only expensive, they are also the most

      expensive that those devices will ever be. Companies are presumably attempting to

      recover the cost of production as fast as they can, and they know that there are serious

      tech-lovers who will pay a great deal to be first. Once the revenues from early adopters

       purchases are safely in their hands, they can cut the price and shift to the next marke-

      ting phase: selling the product to everyone else. This is why the cost of the original

      iPhone dropped about US $200 only eight months after its release.

       

      Speaking of becoming obsolete, those who are first to leap into a new technology risk

       wasting money and time on something that will never catch on. Do you remember high-

      definition DVDs (HD DVDs)? Neither do a lot of people. In 2006, two competing formats

      for high-definition video entered the market: HD DVDs and Blueray discs. Both seemed

      promising, and both required players costing hundreds of US dollars. Cautious consumers

       decided to stay neutralrealizing that one or the other would probably end up dominating

      and it was difficult to say which. But a few eager consumers rolled the dice and bought an

      HD DVD player that soon became virtually worthless. For reasons that are not entirely clear-

      Blu-ray has no obvious technological advantage over its rival-the HD DVD format lost. Sales

       dropped steadily, and in early 2008 HD DVD players were discontinued. Many new products

      are similarly doomed to never make it; the early adopters are then stuck with pricey gadgets

      that do nothing but sit on their shelves collecting dust. And as the story of HD DVD shows,

      which products survive may be quite arbitrary, so even the most knowledgeable among us

       can be taken by surprise.

       

      Another good reason to resist the early-adoption temptation is that the first version of a

      product typically has defects that cost a lot in time and frustration. For example, when

      Microsoft's latest game console, Xbox One, was released in 2013, users immediately began

      to complain of problems. Some of them were malfunctions of the motion sensor, while

      others involved users being unable to get their machines online. Dedicated gamers worked

      to find and share work-around solutions to these issues. Such problems are so common

      with new technology that early adopters are basically unpaid beta testers and troubleshooters.

       

      Unless this sounds to you like a fun way to spend your time, don t be among the first users.

      If you wait to learn what the problems are with a new electronic gadget, you can look forward

      to a smoother experience-or choose a less troublesome product.

       

      cu

       

      ƪžһƪY^͵hՓģɲá_^βжץ׾䣬KϡķʽMи

      Being among the first to try out a new piece of technology is cool. c instead, wait and

      see׶βһһβcUߵĺ^cɞһ¼gćLԇߴһЩLU

      Ķβ־͇Lԇ¼gеLUԵԭMԔMĔεĶ׾䡰First, the earliest

      versions of devices are not only expensive, they are also the most expensive that those devices

       will ever be. Speaking of becoming obsolete, those who are first to leap into a new techn-

      ology risk wasting money and time on something that will never catch on. Another good

      reason to resist the early-adoption temptation is that the first version of a product typically

      has defects that cost a lot in time and frustration.քeἰc1aƷrF2

      MXLU3aƷȱݡ

      Yβĵ΄tٴcе^cβͨ^lZľɞʹߵIJ֮̎

      SWrע⿂ֿYʽľOã⣬жβֵcԭͨ^^õ߉݋~

      Rfirst, secondMд“βɾҪעԣҪ^چ¡

       

       

      V. Translation

      Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

      1.c, һc!  (patient) 

      2. cWrȣλʿֱ!  (How)

      3. Swu֏, λI܇ֵĊZډ벻bɼ normal

      4. ֵһ, ώӰ, ͬ‚PעӂŬ,ijɿ (asas)

       

      𰸅

       

      1.Grandpa has some hearing problems, so we should be patient with him.

      Since grandpa has some trouble hearing well, be patient with him.

      2. How quite different the soldier is from himself in school days!

      3. As the amateur cyclist's physical strength gradually becomes normal, his dream of being the

      champion is no longer distant/ out of reach/beyond his reach.

      4. What is worth mentioning is that under the influence of Teacher Wang, his colleagues dont

      pay as much attention to scores/results as to students efforts.

       

       

      cu

       

      ͬWgrҪľ͡~M_Zʴ_澫ʰաͷ棺һ} ǰ߉݋Pϵ

      ДԷgsinceԭZľ䣻}tgasĠZľ䣬ʾSĺx

      }t~ԏľеZľͱZľġ_棺be patient with beyond ones reach

      Ҋ_^AҪͬWƽreۡZҪעzrBZB^һº;Ć}

       

       

       

      VI. Guided Writing 

      Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

      Wؑ棩

      s־ϿPڹųǵĽBTƱο5Ԫο15Ԫ˸ՈĿǽo

      ݋һҪ

      1.Bs־Ͽă

      2.ԼĿ

       

      ώ

       

      Dear editors,

      I have seen the detailed introduction to XX Ancient City from your magazine. What impresses me

       most is the fact that the admission ticket charges domestic visitors $5, while the price goes up to

      $15 for inbound tourists. Actually, this is not an isolated case. Many scenic spots have adopted

      similar differential pricing schemes.

        So far as Im concerned, such strategy, in the long term, might not bring about continued and

      steady increase in profits as they expected, but rather, some negative effects will most probably

      arise.

        Firstly, it is self-evident that tourism economy largely depends on word-of-mouth recommendation.

      What else might incur more criticism than being judged unfairly since the very beginning? Instead,

      a memorable visiting experience should involve high quality services, such as admission, food and

      souvenirs, among which, respect for all comes first.

        Secondly, while many have justified this differential pricing strategy, it is a clear violation against

      Tourism Ticket Price Management Law issued nearly two decades ago. The law obviously stipulated

       that tourist attractions should not distinguish between domestic and foreign tourists, which, again,

       reminds us of the essence of fair dealing.

      Thirdlydifferentiating admission price may not necessarily be the best choice in mining tourists

      consumption. Take West Lake for example. By opening West Lake for free in 2003, Hangzhou has

      attracted thousands of visitors from home and abroad, generating an income of tens of millions

      RMB per year in tourism alone.

        All in all, the management of tourist resorts requires more courage and wisdom. It is strongly reco-

      mmended that XX Ancient City should treat visitors equally in admission price. And we are all looking

      forward to a healthier development of the tourism industry in China.

                                                           Yours,

                                                           Li

      u

       

      v^2017-2019Ϻ߿ӢZ}Ŀһdz@څԽԽӵؚ⣬ҽYό£עؿW

      ČijF˼呟WĪ˼2019ӢZ}Ŀc5·eеİZ

      ģӢZĵijD\ϡ

        crPhՓΌһע}ĿҪҪеăݶҪwԣܘ@Ӱţһ֣

      ȺҪBr¬F󣻵ڶ_ʼҪԼ^cҪôڡҪôףڲڲ׵g؎Ȼչ_

      γд^c֣Yc}ѡ

        ԣƪĵĽYҲcơһ֣vͬƱͬrĬF󲢷ǂڶ֣cԼ^c­ٝ

      @NȻչ_ԭ1.oο²õӡ󣬲ĺ^ǶȣՄνڱС

      ʧx2.`PҎϣοƽȣ3.efּƱrδ\ѷʽ

      ԰ݲֿYָּƱrhһҕͬʣЇИI԰lչ

        ͬWҲԏĴ˴θ߿йиQĬF𣬶Pע߅ğc„һƽr˼ռ

      ڄӹPğѪ꣡

       

      WݣՈPע:http://www.n1178.com/

      :
      Ԓ
      _n
      • SBS f-1948115
        vˣʯ
          rgÿ9:00-11:30
         
      • SBS f-1948031
        vˣo
          rgÿ12:30-15:00
         
      • ƶ˔a¸I-1948078
        vˣSޱ
          rgÿ15:00-17:30
         
      ]n
      • Сиx-1931059
          _rg2019/4/14
          nrg12:30~15:00
          r
         
        ھAsp50Ԫ
      • Сиǰo-300175
          _rg2020/1/1
          nrgܶ09:00~18:00
          r
         
        ھAsp50Ԫ
      • Hи_̰ࣨA200600...
          _rg2020/4/25
          nrg12:30~15:00
          r
         
        ھAsp50Ԫ
      • Hи_̰ࣨͻƣ20-060...
          _rg2020/4/25
          nrg12:30~15:00
          r
         
        ھAsp50Ԫ
      • Hи_̰ࣨA-1808...
          _rg2020/8/15
          nrg09:00~12:00
          r
         
        ھAsp50Ԫ
       
      ӰƬһ